I deployed a SharePoint feature that has an Event Receiver and ran into this error when trying to update the Today Column during a nightly batch run. The Error occured on random Document Libray items. So I did some research and found out that I needed to update the Event Receiver to run as Synchonous when Updating items. This solved the problem! By default Event Receivers run Asynchrounsly, which is not always ideal, especially in this situation.

To fix this problem just update the Element.xml file for the Event Receiver in question for the event type (Updating) you want to run as Synchronous as follows. Then redeploy. Be sure to Deactivate and Activate the site feature once it has been redeployed since it might not be used everywhere.

<Synchronization>Synchronous</Synchronization> under Elements -> Receivers -> Receiver tag

Also in my nightly batch job I used the following code to disable Events when Updating... The Using Code is further down the page.

//Disables Events when updating
using (var scope = new DisabledItemEventsScope())
{
SPList list = oWebsite.Lists["Code Rules"];
//This must be switched on, otherwise the Update method will throw an exception.
collWebsite[i].AllowUnsafeUpdates = true;

for (int k = list.Items.Count - 1; k >= 0; k--)
{
SPListItem item = list.Items[k];
//This only Works if the List Item was manually Updated before using a column called Today.
item.Properties["Today"] = DateTime.Now.Date.ToString(CultureInfo.InvariantCulture);

//SystemUpdate Updates without changing the Modified Time OR Modified By and DOES NOT make a New Version!
item.SystemUpdate(false);
}
collWebsite[i].AllowUnsafeUpdates = false;
}

        #region DisabledItemEventsScope
        /// <summary>
        /// Disabled item events scope
        /// </summary>
        /// <see cref="https://adrianhenke.wordpress.com/2010/01/29/disable-item-events-firing-during-item-update/"/>
        class DisabledItemEventsScope : SPItemEventReceiver, IDisposable
        {
            bool oldValue;

            public DisabledItemEventsScope()
            {
                this.oldValue = base.EventFiringEnabled;
                base.EventFiringEnabled = false;
            }

            #region IDisposable Members

            public void Dispose()
            {
                base.EventFiringEnabled = oldValue;
            }

            #endregion
        }
        #endregion DisabledItemEventsScope

Good Luck!